Are Electric Vehicles Ready for Prime Time?

Okay, so you are ready to do your part to reduce fossil fuel usage and you are considering an EV (Electric Vehicle). Several manufactures are marketing EV’s, but which one is right for you? Everyone has different driving styles and needs. How far can you go on a 100% EV? How reliable are they? Are there any savings? Some of these questions will be answered below to help you determine if this technology is ready for you.

There are three types of EV’s available. But, are they ready for prime time? You decide.

  1. Dedicated EV- Electric only
  2. Extended EV Electric with gasoline engine
  3. Plug-in hybrids

Dedicated EV is an electric only vehicle. There are four models available or expected out by 2012.

  1. Nissan Leaf is a four-door five-passenger hatch back pure battery electric vehicle. It has an expected range of 100 miles between charges, which Nissan says is sufficient for 90% of Americans. It takes eight hours or more to fully charge with a 220-volt outlet and longer with a 110-volt outlet. The starting price is estimated at $33,600. The warranty on the battery and related hardware is eight years or 100,000 miles. The estimated cost to replace the battery is $18,000. Expected availability is December 2010.
  2. Mini E Cooper is a two-door two-passenger pure battery electric vehicle. It has an expected range of 156 miles under ideal conditions. Most drivers get about 100 miles between charges. It takes approximately 3 hours to charge with a 240 volt 48 Amp outlet or 4.5 hours with a 32-amp outlet. If using a 110 volt 12 amp outlet it takes approximately 26.5 hours to charge. This is a two-passenger vehicle because the battery takes up the entire back seat. The regenerative braking takes a little getting used to, the system kicks in as soon as the driver lifts his foot off the accelerator pedal. This causes the vehicle to begin slowing before the brake pedal is applied. BMW is leasing these vehicles as part of a special program. They are developing a replacement based on the BMW 1 Series, which is due out in 2011.
  3. Ford Focus EV is a four-door sedan based on the redesigned 2012 Focus. The prototypes have a 23-kilowatt hour lithium-ion battery pack with an estimated range of 100 miles. Charge time is approximately 6 hours on a 220-volt charger.
  4. Tesla Roadster first started selling in 2008. It has a price tag of $111,000, it is a two-seater sports car. It is based on the Lotus Elise with a fiberglass body. This car is a rocket, it can accelerate from zero to 60 in under four seconds. It has a range of 245 miles with a massive 53-kilowatt-hour battery pack. Full charge takes 3.5 hours on a proprietary 240-Volt 70 amp charger. It has a very stiff and jarring ride with a very basic interior. It is awkward climbing into the cockpit because of the tall wide sill. The loud battery-cooling fans emit a constant roar behind you. Tesla is developing a lower cost $50,000+ model S sedan expected to be released in 2012.

Extended EV electric with gasoline engine

The Chevrolet Volt is the only model that falls within this category. It is a four-door four-passenger sedan. The Volt does not have a rear bench seat like most vehicles because of the T shaped battery pack. It has a range of 40 miles on electric power. GM states this is sufficient for 75% of commuters. Once the battery level drops below a certain level, a small gas engine kicks in to provide enough electric power to run the electric motor. The overall range is 300 miles before filling the gas tank or charging the batteries. GM says the Volt can run with never being plugged in. However, it will impact the fuel economy. Charge time for the Volt is four hours on 220 volt or eight to 10 hours on 110-volt outlets. The Volt charges faster than the dedicated electric vehicles because it has a smaller battery. The battery warranty for the Volt is the same as the Nissan leaf. The warranty on the battery and related hardware is eight years or 100,000 miles. The starting price for the Volt is $41,000. The replacement cost of the Lithium-ion battery is approximately $8000, which is $10,000 less than the Leaf. The electric motor produces 149 horse power and 273 pound-feet of torque. Those torque numbers are about the same as a V-6 engine.

Plug-in Hybrids

There are no manufactures producing plug-in Hybrids as of this writing. However, there are some aftermarket companies producing aftermarket add on batteries for the Toyota Prius. The extra cost of these add on batteries is approximately $11,000. This added battery boosts the gas mileage by approximately 50% for the first 35 miles. Once the battery is depleted, the Prius reverts back to its regular hybrid operation at which time the fuel economy drops slightly below that of a standard Prius because of the added battery weight. Toyota is field-testing the plug-in Prius for commercial use. There are no expected models for retail customers until 2012.

Some things to consider before purchasing an EV

What are your driving habits? What are the longest distances you will be traveling? When driving a pure electric vehicle; if the battery runs out completely with no charging stations available you will be stranded. With the long charge times, it will take some time to make the vehicle usable again. This is where the extended range Volt becomes more practical. Filling up the gas tank is faster than waiting for the battery to charge.

Using other electrical features like the Air Conditioning, Heating, Lights, Wind Shield Wipers and playing Music; engineers say this can consume approximately 50% of the battery power which will reduce the vehicles range.

Lithium-ion technology battery life is undetermined, however, the eight year 100,000 mile warranty on the Chevrolet Volt and the Nissan Leaf do give some piece of mind.

Cost savings

An EV costs about.04 cents per-mile (depending on the electric rates in your area). You can compare that to a Toyota Corolla at 30 mpg paying $2.80 per gallon, the per-mile cost is.09 cents.

Government incentives

The first 200,000 EV buyers from each automaker are eligible for $7,500 federal tax credit. There are also some regional incentives; for instance, California will offer an additional $5000 tax credit for “zero emission” vehicles. Check your area for local incentives.

To conclude, there are four 100% electric vehicles available by 2012. One extended range vehicle, which could be zero emission if your driving range is within the available battery level. And there are the more common Hybrids, like the Prius which runs mostly on regular gas but with great mileage and with the future pilot of the Prius as a plug in, this vehicle will eventually fall within the extended range category.

Is the EV ready for prime time? Your driving habits and needs will tell. How far do you drive daily, can you plugin at work? Are most of your driving needs around town? This is where the greatest benefits will be realized. What part of the country do you live in? Will an EV work in your environment? Parts of the country with extreme heat or cold will require more battery usage to heat or cool the vehicle, which will reduce the range. Will this reduce your cost savings?

With government incentives, the cost of one of these EV’s can be reduced to a more acceptable range, keeping the cost closer to a conventional gas vehicle. There are also reduce maintenance costs with an EV, no oil changes and the electric motors are mostly maintenance free.

Electric Vehicle Range – The Role and Care of Your Batteries

With the right motor and batteries you will be surprised at the acceleration ability of your new electric vehicle. You will even out accelerate many gas vehicles if put to the test. We are not just building an oversized underpowered golf cart here. These vehicles are capable of doing 50 mph and have a range of up to 200 miles before they need to be charged up.

Depending on whether you have bought new batteries or found some second-hand industrial batteries you will have to decide how you are going to maximize their lifespan and the range you are going to get out of each charge. With second-hand batteries you may need to be more conservative with your speed and range. Most second-hand batteries can be restored to almost new condition with some care, with flooded batteries this would involve emptying the batteries of electrolyte and filling them up again with ionized water and then charging them for approximately 24 hours. When they have been charged like this they are emptied once more and the process is repeated, they should then be refilled with the correct electrolyte and charged once more.

This process should give them a totally new lease on life. With new batteries, they take time to reach full capacity, usually after a number of charges, and most batteries should not be run to fully discharged early on as this will reduce their lifespan. Because the batteries are the heart of your electric vehicle and determine how far you will be able to travel on a single charge, it is essential to take good care of them, whether they are second-hand batteries which you picked up cheaply or a new set of batteries which you paid good money for. If you have been able to buy a new set of batteries it is highly advisable to carefully read the instructions which would come with the set as these instructions will give you the best advice on how to best care for your new batteries, thereby ensuring you get the maximum usage out of the batteries.

As you get used to driving your electric vehicle, you will find ways of running without using the motor, such as when there are steep hills, you can often coast down the hills to save the batteries. This will significantly increase your range and remember that when you are doing this you are saving money and doing your bit to help the planet.

Battery Electric Vehicles

Cars are one of the most commonly used vehicles for commuting and since the origin of the automobiles, there have been various innovations in terms of types and kinds of cars. One of the earliest among these characteristic kinds was the electric cars or EV, also known as the battery electric vehicle or BEV which emerged in the 19th century. Unlike the hybrid vehicles which perform with the aid of both internal combustion engines as well as electric motors, the electric cars make use of motor controllers and electric motors and function by means of the chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. With the progress of time and advancement of technology, one of the adverse effects that hit human civilization was the ill-effects of pollution.

Under such circumstances, it must be pointed out that battery electric vehicles more often make use of renewable sources of energy and therefore they do not emit exhaust fumes and minimize the risks of environmental pollution. These electric vehicles do not produce toxic smoke and are mostly soundless and are also capable of producing more acceleration compared to the conventional vehicles. The different variants of the battery electric vehicle include golf carts, electric scooters motorcycles, light trucks and because of their low dependence on the use of petroleum, it is possible to constrict the harmful effects of global warming as well. The most important constituent of the battery electric vehicles are their batteries and in mot circumstances, the prices of the batteries determine the expense to be incurred by the owner on the vehicle. However, they are still considered to be cheaper compared to the conventional vehicles and while the initial battery prices may seem high, the overall maintenance cost is not that expensive.

There are several reasons why the battery electric vehicles are more often a preferred option among enthusiasts. The fluctuation of rising fuel prices does not affect it and they are also successful in restraining vehicle energy costs by almost 90%. The source of electricity in ca battery electric vehicle may be obtained form hydro power, solar power, wind energy or nuclear power which ascertains the non-emission of carbon fumes which can cause harm to the environment. Batteries need to be recharged after stipulated priors of time and those costs are not so high and remain more or less constant compared to the inconsistency of fuel prices.

However, it is to be kept in mind that unless renewable sources of energy are used, electric vehicles cannot check carbon emissions and the batteries too require frequent replacement.